This type of system is when there is a client (or multiple) that communicates was a server. Might be via WCF (Windows Communication Foundation), a RESL call, binary through a plain old socket. The server can hold any kind of information. Communication is mostly secured with the newest standards as DES, AES and more.
MicroSoft's cloud based servers that provides a complete infrastructure for servers and services. Backup. Failover. Clusters. Geo redundancy. Its AWSOME and cheap. Highly configurable. This eliminates the need for local servers that needs to be maintained. MicroSoft will take care of this and we can focus on what we love : building applications for customers.
NoSQL Mongo/Azure Table Storage
A apose to SQL (Structured Query Language) NoSQL has to query language. SQL and relational database implies that there are data that are structured (dependent) and have relations with each other. That why you need a query language. In No-SQl there is none. The data is stored with the relation (or data) attached to it. That means very fast look up compared to a relational database. But not all data is suitable for NoSQL. I've worked a lot with Mongo and Azure Table Storage which is the same thing. It's just MicroSoft specific.
I love developing apps! I love doing that. Since I got the first course in iOS building an app. It's so powerfull. I use Xamarin for cross platform compilation and fast porting to iOS/Android/WinPhone. I can create integration with various systems. Http based - binary or REST-based.
Say you have data that needs to be exposed to the world via a public interface that everybody can use. I can build a service that will help you do this. Most common today is doing it via a RESTful Api. MicroSoft has a few products out there. WebAPI for one.
Security / Encryption
We are using security and encryption all the time. Https SSL Certificates - All of it. If you need to have your data secured I can help you. You can enforce security and encryption on many levels. And it may have a huge impact on your IT infrastructure. Also for clients. They may also be affected by it. I can help you estimate the impact it will have in your case and how to go about it. I have some experience with this.
I like to speed things up. Servers. Code. Services. I profile to find the problem and start to work on possible solutions that fits the needs of a customer. Sometimes it's just not possible to move from SQL to NoSQL to gain performance. Performance is many things. Make things faster is not a goal. You have to have numbers to go for. Say read times must be under 5 ms - that a real goal.